A "culture of conservatism" : How and why African Union member states obstruct the deepening of integration (21 pages)

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and the edited report, which was later submitted to the APRM Secre-
tariat (South African Institute of International Affairs 2006). The editing
seems to have been carefully conducted in order to ensure that South
Africa was depicted as a model democratic state.

The subsequent draft of the report was leaked to the press, and

the Sunday Times published an article which summarised the key
points of the report, highlighting in particular the warnings on crime,
poverty, unemployment, and the political domination of the African
National Congress (ANC). The report considered these issues as a
threat to the stability of South Africa's democracy (Sunday Times,
3 December 2006). If the version of the APRM report leaked by the
Sunday Times was correct, then there have been substantial changes
to the final report that was published in mid-2007. While crime and the
ANC's dominance were initially defined as threats to South Africa's
democracy, the final version of the report only sees crime as the key
challenge (APRM 2007). The final report also does not indicate that
the ANC's dominance is a threat to democracy, but reads: "As the
dominant political party, the ANC has a specific responsibility to adopt
an orientation and put in place the necessary political machinery that
will nurture citizens capable of sustaining democracy and political
governance through bottom-up decision-making processes" (APRM
2007). The APRM Monitor, a periodical that regularly reports on the
APRM process, noted that, "several key issues had been downplayed
or omitted" (APRM Monitor 2006). Effectively, with this manoeuvre
President Mbeki and his administration undermined the president's
own initiative, as Mbeki is widely considered to be one of the prime
architects of New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) and
also the APRM (Olivier 2003: 827).

There are more setbacks to mention: Mauritius, considered as

one of the model democratic states in Africa, failed to complete its
report in its first attempt, as it did not take the initiative seriously
enough and did not comply with APRM standards, making a second
try necessary (Herbert and Gruzd 2008: 243-254; Masterson 2005).
Botswana and Namibia, considered, like Mauritius, to be model demo-
cratic states, have not even signed up for the process and show no
intention to do so, while Rwanda has been accused of being "inade-
quately self-critical" in the process after subscribing to it (Jordaan
2006: 333-351).

It appears as if the review process has lost momentum. Be-

Strategic Review for Southern Africa, Vol 36, No 1 Martin Welz

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