AAPA Reference Guidelines How to Cite Sources using the AMA Citation Style (2 pages)

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Articles in Online Journals

The preferred citation style for an electronic journal uses a DOI (digital object identifier). The
DOI provides a persistent link to the electronic item and is considered to be more stable
than a URL. If the DOI is not given on the full text article or in the citation, use a DOI lookup
tool to locate it (


) or use the format for an article without

a DOI.

Article from online journals
with DOI available.

Note that when using a DOI,
no access date or URL are

Author. Title of article. Name of Journal. Year;vol(issue):pages.

Florez HR, Martinez RL. Outdoor exercise reduces the risk of
hypovitaminosis D in the obese. J Steroid Biochem Mol Bio.
2007;103(3-5):679-681. doi:10.1016 /j.jsbmb.2006.12.032.

Article from online journals
without DOI available.

The accessed date will often
be the only date available.

Author. Title of article. Name of Journal. Year;vol(issue);pages.
URL. Published date. Updated date. Accessed date.

Hay PJ. Understanding bulimia. Aust Fam Physician. 2007;36(9):708-
712. http://www.racgp.org.au/afp/200709/18554. Accessed October
11, 2009.

Web pages

Author or responsible body. Title of item cited. Name of website.
URL. Published date. Updated date. Accessed date.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. New carbapenem-
resistant Enterobacteriaceae warrant additional action by healthcare
providers. CDC Emergency Preparedness and
Response. http://emergency.cdc.gov/HAN/han00341.asp. Published
February 14, 2013. Accessed March 31, 2013.

Other Media

Use for DVDs, videos, cd-
roms, and other media

Author. Title [format]. Publisher place: Publisher; Year.

Holzknect J. History of physical therapy in the United States [DVD].
New York, NY: Insight Media; 2007.


Cite references that are retrievable in text, tables, and figures in consecutive order using
superscript Arabic numbers. Use commas to separate multiple citation numbers in text.
Corresponding references should be listed in numerical order at the end of the document.
Unpublished works and personal communications should be cited parenthetically (not on the
reference list). Superscript numbers are placed outside periods and commas, and inside colons
and semicolons.

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