How to 'connect' micro-regions with macro-regions? A Note (9 pages)

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Hettne, B., and F. Söderbaum (2000), “Theorising the Rise of Region-ness”, New Political Economy,
5(3): 457–473.

Hettne, B. and F. Söderbaum (2004), Regional Cooperation. A Tool for Addressing Regional and Global

, International Task Force on Global Public Goods, Göteborg, 9.

Hocking, B. (1993), Localizing Foreign Policy. Non-Central Governments and Multilayered Diplomacy, New

York: St. Martin’s Press.

Jönsson, C., S. Tägil and G. Törnqvist (2000), Organizing European Space, London: Sage.

Keating, M. (2011), “Regions and Regionalism”, Regions & Cohesion, 1(1):4-6.

Krugman, P. and R.L. Elizondo (1996), “Trade Policy and the Third World Metropolis”, Journal of

Development Economics

, (49): 137-150.

Nye, J.S. (1971), Peace in Parts. Integration and Conflict in Regional Organization, Boston: Little,

Brown and Company.

Schiff, M. and L.A. Winters (2002), “Regional Cooperation and the Role of International
Organizations and Regional Integration”, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, (2872).

Schiff, M. and L.A. Winters (2003), Regional Integration and Development, Washington DC: The World
Bank-Oxford University Press.

Söderbaum, F. (2005), “Exploring the Links between Micro-regionalism and Macro-regionalism”,
in: M. Farrell, B. Hettne and L. Van Langenhove (eds), The Global Politics of Regionalism, London:
Pluto, pp. 87-103.

Söderbaum, F. and T. Shaw (eds) (2003), Theories of New Regionalism: A Palgrave Reader, Basingstoke-
New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Soldatos, P. (1990), “An Explanatory Framework for the Study of Federated States as Foreign-
Policy Actors”, in: H. Michelmann and P. Soldatos (eds), Federalism and International Relations. The Role
of Subnational Units

, Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 34-53.

Telò, M. (ed.) (2007), European Union and New Regionalism. Regional Actors and Global Governance in a
Post-Hegemonic Era,

Aldershot: Ashgate.

Warleigh-Lack, A. and L. Van Langenhove (2010), “Rethinking EU Studies: The Contribution of
Comparative Regionalism”, Journal of European Integration, 32(6): 541-562.


For a typology of micro-regions see, for example, Jönsson et al. (2000).


Keating (2011) uses the term ‘transnational’ region.


See for example, Hettne, Inotai and Sunkel (2000, 2001); Söderbaum and Shaw (2003); Breslin et al. (2002);

De Lombaerde (2003); and Telò (2007).


‘Regionness’ was also proposed as a fluid or continuous concept, as opposed to the ‘old’ static definitions.

See, Hettne and Söderbaum (2004). See also, Warleigh-Lack and Van Langenhove (2010: 547).


Contrasting the region with the state should not be confused with associating the region with the state. In

other words, in the new understanding the relation between the region and the state “is not given a priori and
is often problematic” (Keating, 2011: 4). Regions are seen as relatively autonomous systems, not as merely
aggregations or subdivisions of states.


Also called para-diplomacy or multi-layered diplomacy. See, for example, Soldatos (1990); Duchacek

(1990); Hocking (1993); Aldecoa and Keating (1999); and Criekemans (2010).


Meaning that foreign policy becomes a separate policy domain and department.


See for example, Krugman and Elizondo (1996) on the case of NAFTA; Schiff and Winters (2003: 137-

145); and Blatter (2004: 532).


On the ‘Asian way’ in regional cooperation and integration, see for example, ADB (2008, 2010).

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