How to 'connect' micro-regions with macro-regions? A Note (9 pages)

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Hettne, B., and F. Söderbaum (2000), “Theorising the Rise of Region-ness”, New Political Economy,
5(3): 457–473.

Hettne, B. and F. Söderbaum (2004), Regional Cooperation. A Tool for Addressing Regional and Global
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Hocking, B. (1993), Localizing Foreign Policy. Non-Central Governments and Multilayered Diplomacy, New

York: St. Martin’s Press.

Jönsson, C., S. Tägil and G. Törnqvist (2000), Organizing European Space, London: Sage.

Keating, M. (2011), “Regions and Regionalism”, Regions & Cohesion, 1(1):4-6.

Krugman, P. and R.L. Elizondo (1996), “Trade Policy and the Third World Metropolis”, Journal of

Development Economics

, (49): 137-150.

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Schiff, M. and L.A. Winters (2002), “Regional Cooperation and the Role of International
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Schiff, M. and L.A. Winters (2003), Regional Integration and Development, Washington DC: The World
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Söderbaum, F. (2005), “Exploring the Links between Micro-regionalism and Macro-regionalism”,
in: M. Farrell, B. Hettne and L. Van Langenhove (eds), The Global Politics of Regionalism, London:
Pluto, pp. 87-103.

Söderbaum, F. and T. Shaw (eds) (2003), Theories of New Regionalism: A Palgrave Reader, Basingstoke-
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, Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 34-53.

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I

For a typology of micro-regions see, for example, Jönsson et al. (2000).

II

Keating (2011) uses the term ‘transnational’ region.

III

See for example, Hettne, Inotai and Sunkel (2000, 2001); Söderbaum and Shaw (2003); Breslin et al. (2002);

De Lombaerde (2003); and Telò (2007).

IV

‘Regionness’ was also proposed as a fluid or continuous concept, as opposed to the ‘old’ static definitions.

See, Hettne and Söderbaum (2004). See also, Warleigh-Lack and Van Langenhove (2010: 547).

V

Contrasting the region with the state should not be confused with associating the region with the state. In

other words, in the new understanding the relation between the region and the state “is not given a priori and
is often problematic” (Keating, 2011: 4). Regions are seen as relatively autonomous systems, not as merely
aggregations or subdivisions of states.

VI

Also called para-diplomacy or multi-layered diplomacy. See, for example, Soldatos (1990); Duchacek

(1990); Hocking (1993); Aldecoa and Keating (1999); and Criekemans (2010).

VII

Meaning that foreign policy becomes a separate policy domain and department.

VIII

See for example, Krugman and Elizondo (1996) on the case of NAFTA; Schiff and Winters (2003: 137-

145); and Blatter (2004: 532).

IX

On the ‘Asian way’ in regional cooperation and integration, see for example, ADB (2008, 2010).

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