open government - Freddy Mariñez Navarro (38 pages)

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final voltage is displayed when the public needs and wants to analyze and understand a group of

"aggregate" while in reality government data are fragmented and distributed at all levels of

government through various organizations and areas where it is generated and developed public


Ball (cited in Heungsik Park and John Blenkinsopp, 2011) suggests that transparency is

beginning to merge with the accountability in public discourse on democratic governance. This

has allowed to see based on several factors: One, transparency is one of the moral foundations

that sustain democratic societies, through the rights of citizens to access government information,

two, transparency is one of the measures taken to restrict practices corruption, act as a force

against the corrupt behavior of the bureaucracy, promoting surveillance of citizens to avoid rent-

seeking, three, transparency has a positive effect on trust and accountability with the idea for

citizens to monitor the quality of public services and encourage public officials to meet citizens,

allowing to increase the degree of confidence as this is an important principle of deliberative

democracy. These three factors gives us the ability to visualize three essential components when

we think about government transparency: access to public information and citizen rights


, a

bureaucracy with public ethics


, and institutional trust



According to Ulf Papenful B and Christina Schaefer (2010) three steps must be completed to

achieve public accountability. The first step, access to information must be guaranteed full and

undistorted or backward and low cost, this will minimize problems of asymmetric information



the second is the quality of information, must be secured through cooperation Reports (Reports),

these are only one type of aggregate summary information with individual details which explains


The Carter Center displays the access to information as a fundamental human right in all cultures and systems of

government. In this sense, has established an action plan to secure these rights: 1) Exercise of the right of equal
access, 2) Preparation and training of civil servants in the practice and application of access rights, 3) Public
Education to authorize full use of the right, 4) Allocation of resources to ensure timely and efficient administration;
5) Enhanced information management to facilitate access to information; 6) practice in monitoring and evaluation,
and 7) supervision of operation and compliance (Carter Center, 2008: 3-4, cited in Sharon S. Dawes, 2010).


Civil servants not visualize access to public information as a right risk management implement opaque and lacking

public ethics.


Kasperson et al. (1992, cited by Tom Van Der Meer, 2010) argues that trust is a relational evaluation of social

situations through four dimensions: A person who trusts (subject), implies that he or she thinks that the object of
trust meets certain requirements: the object would have jurisdiction, both intrinsically (care) as extrinsically
committed (auditable because of their specific interest) and predictable.


Clearly, the relevance of the information depends on who the potential users of the information. However, there is

a first delimitation can be done when we are talking about transparency: in this case, the reference is required
citizenship, so the relevance of information is conditional on whether or not to serve their purposes (Nuria Cunill
Grau, 2006)

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