open government - Freddy Mariñez Navarro (38 pages)

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forms that are expressed today in the case of Public Private Partnerships (PPP) that include

private sector involvement in public services and that have been used in all continents, in many

countries and in many different sectors



Public-Private Partnerships were formed in a fashion in the United States in the early 70s when

governments take turns to private sector efforts or demands through a pact to expand government

capacity. (Bovaird, 2004, cited by Frans Jorna, Pieter Wagenaar, Enny Das and Jezewski, 2010)

sees this as a kind of partnership agreed work (involving a contract) between a public sector

organization with organizations outside the sector. One can start the PPP is an alternative to

privatization given the increasing complexity of both public problems and the way to solve it. In

this sense, Mark Moore (2006) argues that there is a macro-institutional interdependence

between public and private. Thus, "public law designed to protect property and ensure public

order and a fair relationship between citizens, cannot easily be imposed without obedience and

social control provided by the consent and agreement of the private sector" (2006, 4-5).

Furthermore, Diederik Verschuere Vancoppennolle and Bram (2011) explain that private sector

participation in the provision of public services has a destiny of consequences and implications

for the actors and stakeholders involved: service users, the service provided by organizations and

the government as a regulator and director of network services offered.

We could list several advantages of Public Private Partnerships. One is partnering with networks

and trust


, mutual obligation holistic character and seen as a third way (let let market state), the

expertise, capital and administrative capacity to narrow the gap between plans and results. Thus,

this form of management would move to resolve the fragmentation of structures and processes

and to smooth the responsibilities and accountability (accountability). This is the hierarchical

authority and vertical control are less relevant because private organizations have a degree of

independence from the government. When private actors of different types offer the same


For purposes of the concept of Open Government that we assume in this paper, we relate the PPP only as a

network of collaboration between the private sector (business) and government.


According to Erik-Hans Klijn, Jurian Steijn Edelenbos and Bram (2010), ". Remarkably, there have only been a

few studies on the role of trust in networks from a public administration perspective. That is surprising because trust
is supposed to be important in situations of high uncertainty. These include situations where it is difficult to rely
solely on contracts, bonds and penalties, which are the types of situations actors face when they are part of
governance networks." (2010: 194)

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